The problem of parasite infection is not sufficiently covered in society, so one begins to be interested in the question of how to identify parasites in the body only after the worms have already caused serious damage to health.
People are accustomed to not noticing the problem until the effects of helminths begin to affect their well-being.
To begin treatment in a timely manner, it is important to know how to determine the presence of parasites in the body - we are talking about the symptoms of helminthiasis, which we will discuss in the article.
Parasites, their species
Parasites are lower life forms that exist at the expense of the host organism. They can exist on the surface of the skin, affect the internal organs, tissues, mucous membranes.
By consuming the nutrients that enter the body of the host, protozoa poison the human body with the products of their vital activity.
Depending on the location, there are several main types of parasites:
- endoparasites exist inside the human body (echinococcus, giardia, toxoplasma, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi);
- ectoparasites live on the surface of the body, they can exist in the external environment. Their vital activity is based on the absorption of blood and tissue cells of the host's body. This group includes lice, fleas, ticks, bedbugs.
Worms, roundworms, swine tapeworms, beef tapeworms, lamblia, alveococci, echinococci, tapeworms are most often found.
The adult organism, together with all functional systems, is able to prevent some attacks by parasites.
Enzymes are produced in the oral cavity along with saliva, which are fatal to worm eggs. The acidic environment of the stomach also serves as a protective system.
The next barrier of defense - for particularly stubborn helminths - is the immune system.
However, in the immature body of children, the protective barriers may not work, which can lead to parasite infection.
In the process of evolution, endoparasites have learned to survive under incredible conditions, to adapt to any changes and to destroy the body asymptomatically, practically without betraying their presence.
Studies show that it can take months or even years from the time of infection to the first signs of helminthiasis.
To detect an infection at an early stage, you need to know how to identify parasites in the human body.
You need to carefully monitor the changes in your own body and its signals in order to notice in time the symptoms of intoxication with the waste products of helminths and to determine whether there are parasites in the body.
Signs of worm infestation
The presence of parasites in the body always affects the state of human health. But the signs of protozoan damage are similar to the symptoms of common diseases.
To find out if parasites are present in the body, a medical examination will allow.
There are the following groups of signs indicating infection of the body:
- intoxication of the body;
- damage to the nervous system;
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- skin problems.
Systematic exposure to toxic substances produced by parasites can lead to headaches, weakness, nausea and increased fatigue.
There is a slight rise in temperature to 37, 5 for no apparent reason. The work of the immune system is disrupted, which is a consequence of the appearance of colds, intestinal disorders, allergies.
A clear sign of parasite infestation is unreasonable weight loss due to the body's fight against worms for nutrients.
Children are most susceptible to this symptom. If the child has lost a lot of weight in the usual way of life, then it is urgent to check if the child has helminthiasis.
Prolonged poisoning with worm toxins causes nervousness, depression and irritability.
Sleep disorders can be caused, especially in the middle of the night. At this time, according to human biorhythms, the liver is most active and unreasonable awakening may be the result of the body's attempts to rid itself of toxic substances.
According to some sources, the reaction of the nervous system to parasitic intervention is bruxism - gnashing of teeth during sleep. Many consider this a sign of parasites in a child that has not been scientifically confirmed.
The presence of parasites has a negative impact on the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract. Worms act on the intestinal wall, causing irritation and inflammation.
As a result, the absorption of food and fat compounds is reduced. Moving to the colon, the worms cause spasms. During their vital activity, many types of parasites secrete specific substances that cause diarrhea.
Worms come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so they can cause blockage of certain organs, bile and intestinal tract, leading to constipation.
Located in the small intestine, parasitic creatures cause flatulence, bloating and inflammation. Frequent swelling indicates the presence of microorganisms in the system.
Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in turn lead to changes in the skin: acne, acne, spots of unknown origin, baldness, papillomas, dermatitis.
Often parasites are the cause of allergic reactions: urticaria, rash, eczema. This is due to the fact that worms produce a poison that activates the immune system, leading to a response from the body.
If you notice any of the changes listed above in yourself or your child, you should contact a doctor immediately to be checked for parasites.
A qualified parasitologist will conduct an understandable and accessible instruction (will explain how to check, what tests to take) and will prescribe treatment based on the test results.
Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of helminthiasis
In the human body, parasites, their larvae and eggs can be located in various organs. The ability to move in the body and as a result to be in any system of the body makes it difficult to identify helminthiasis.
At an early stage, parasites can be detected in no more than 15% of patients out of the total number of infected.
How to find out if there are helminths in the body? In order to detect all clinical forms of parasites, complex studies combining different methods are performed.
The following biological materials are used to detect worms in the laboratory process:
- perianal and rectal mucus.
The traditional method by which you can check a child or adult for protozoa is to examine the patient's stool.
To do this, you must pass the appropriate analysis. This proven method allows you to determine the presence of protozoan bodies, larvae and eggs to reveal their type.
The immunological method consists of a blood test that detects antigens and antibodies to certain types of microorganisms.
Antigens are directly represented by parasites and toxins produced by them, and antibodies (immunoglobulins) are produced against antigens in human blood.
This method is informative, with its help more than 90% of the types of parasitic microorganisms can be detected.
As a result of a blood test it is possible to identify the parasitic organism and to establish the dynamics of the disease.
The serological method is used in the acute stage of the disease. You must donate blood for this test.
The biofluid will serve as a material in which antibodies to a particular type of parasite can be detected.
This method is often used in combination with X-ray, ultrasound and endoscopic examinations.
You can check the body for parasites by PCR diagnostics. The method makes it possible to detect a specific parasitic organism by specific DNA analysis.
With the help of PCR diagnostics, a person can simultaneously detect parasites in the test material and design the subsequent development of the disease.
Less commonly in modern medicine, parasites are detected using bioresonance tests, histological coprograms, chemoscanning and electroacupuncture.
Every year new and existing diagnostic methods are developed and improved. This allows you to identify parasites at a stage when the worms have not yet caused changes in the body's work.
Modern medicine recommends prevention of parasite infestation twice a year. There are many pharmaceutical products for this.
Before using drugs, you should consult a doctor, as anthelmintics are toxic not only to helminths but also to the human body.